Time Line of History

1700-1799

© Linda Haas Davenport

 

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1700: Boston judge Samuel Sewall writes The Selling of Joseph - first appeal for the end of slavery.

1701; Captain Kidd hung in England for piracy. Yale College founded by the Puritans in Connecticut. English farmer Jethro Tull invents a machine to plant seeds in a row.

1702: Alabama settled. The world's first daily newspaper begins - The Daily Courant in London. Yellow fever kills 570 in New York. Serfdom abolished in Denmark.

1703: Tokyo earthquake kills almost 200,000 people. Two day storm uproots 17,000 trees and kills thousands when Thames & Severn rivers flood. Samuel Pepys dies (best known for his diaries about the everyday life in London - Great Plague and Great Fire of London). Robert Hooke, inventor of the balance spring and a prototype of the respirator, dies.

1704: Boston News-Letter newspaper began publication in April. Longest continuous period of publication of any paper - carried first newspaper advertisements. Deerfield, MA massacre of English colonists by French and Indians. Colonial laws so varied from England's that an Abridgment was published to contain them. Isaac Newton writes Opticks - description of his discoveries on light and color. France banns all imports from the colonies. John Locke (An Essay Concerning Human understanding) dies.

1705: California is mapped accurately as a peninsula not an island. Parliament adds rice, molasses, and naval stores to goods that must clear English ports. Edmund Halley publishes his prediction of the return of a comet seen in 1682 - Haley's comet appeared on schedule in 1758. VA's Slavery Act says all slaves of color will remain slaves all their lives, unless they convert to Christianity, and shall be treated as real estate under the Virginia Black Code. England's first opera house (Her Majesty's Theater) opens in the Haymarket, London. MA declares marriages between whites and blacks to be illegal.

1706: The first life insurance office opens in London - The Amicable Society.

1707: Johann Christopher Denner, inventor of the clarinet, dies. Publishers of Fifteen Plagues of a Maidenhead (containing explicit pictures) were hauled into court in England - but turned loose due to lack of pornography laws.

1708: 100 miners killed in pit explosion in Ireland.

1709: Carolina Proprietors granted large tracts of land to agents for Swiss and German Palatinate emigrants, drawing those groups to the colonies. Quaker meeting-house is built in Boston, confirming growing tolerance in Massachusetts. Frenchman Denis Paplin builds a self-propelled paddleboat - paddle-wheels and worked by a crew - 1st of its kind. Englishman Abraham Darby creates iron in a coke-fired furnace - increases demand for coal. Cologne-based chemist Giovanni Maria Farina creates Eau de Cologne. German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit invest the alcohol thermometer. Italian Bartolomeo Cristofori invents the pianoforte.

1710: Post Office Act institutes colonial postal system with deputy postmaster in New York. Entire southern tip of Manhattan occupied by 6,000 settlers.

1712: Slaves rebel and kill whites in New York City, Uprising is put down by the militia and 19 are executed.

1713: England is granted right to provide Spain's North American colonies with slaves. Tea was introduced to the American Colonies, where hot chocolate reigned as the most popular non-alcoholic drink. Measles epidemic in Boston.

1716: First colonial theater is built in Williamsburg, VA.

1718: New Orleans is founded by France as a commercial gateway to the Mississippi River. A Franciscan mission is built in Spanish outpost of San Antonio de Valero. Edward Teach known as Blackbeard was ravaging the Carolina coast.

1719: Rebellion in South Carolina was directed against mismanagement by the colony's proprietors. (by 1729 both Carolinas had become crown colonies)

1720: Illinois settled. The Southern Sea Bubble bursts; British government is scandalized and thousands of investors are ruined.

1721: Robert Walpole became chancellor of the exchequer to King George I. Walpole developed a hands-off colonial policy. Smallpox epidemic breaks out in Boston. Marseilles becomes last European city to suffer a major outbreak of the plague. Johanna Sebastian Bach publishes his Six Brandenburg Concertos. John Law's Mississippi Company collapses, triggering financial scandals in Paris.

1722: Daniel Defoe publishes The Fortunes and Misfortunes of Moll Flanders. Easter Island discovered on Easter Day by Jacob Roggeveen.

1724: Vermont settled

1725: William Bradford begins publication of the New York Gazette. Antonio Vivalda publishes The Four Seasons.

1726: Jonathan Swift publishes Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World by Lemuel Gulliver (commonly known as Gulliver's Travels). Riots in Philadelphia result in poor people tearing down and burning the pillories and stocks.

1727: Kansas and West Virginia settled. Diamonds are discovered in Brazil. The Gentleman's Magazine begins publication - first modern magazine.

1728; Botanic garden established by John Bartram in Philadelphia and is still in existence at its original location. Two million gallons of imported rum supplemented copious domestic product. Jewish colonists in New York City build first American synagogue.

1729: Isaac Newton's Principia translated into English. Measles epidemic in Boston. Benjamin Franklin begins publication of The Pennsylvania Gazette - to become the most popular newspaper in the Colonies. The city of Baltimore is founded. Jonathan Swift publishes A Modest Proposal. Englishman Stephen Gray discovers electrical conductivity.

1730: Walter Churchman of Bristol is granted a royal patent for a machine to manufacture chocolate. He builds the first chocolate factory in England. Edward Scarlett added side arms to eyeglasses. George Berkeley founds the Literary and philosophy Society in Rhode Island.

1731: Circulating Library established at Philadelphia by Ben Franklin. Daniel Defoe, author of Robinson Crusoe (1719), dies. He was considered by many to be the one of the originators of the English novel.

1732: Benjamin Franklin begins publishing Poor Richard's Almanac under the pen name of Richard Sanders. Proprietorship by royal grant to James Oglethorpe and others Georgia. Decreed that the Colonies, except for Rhode Island and Connecticut, must submit their laws to the Board of Trade. Molasses Act levied a tax on the colonial import of molasses. Worldwide influenza epidemic begins and continues into 1733. Britain outlaws the importation of American-made hats.

1733: Indiana settled. James Oglethorpe founded Georgia as a fresh start for debtors. Actually the settlement was to act as a buffer between South Carolina and the Spanish-held Florida. Due to elaborate and detailed rules few came to settle. The lighthouse at Cape Breton Island, Canada is lit - it's the first fireproof concrete building in North America. John Kay invents the Flying Shuttle greatly improving the weaver's speed. Reading PA becomes the 1st city in the US to produce iron.

1734: Fiery sermons by Massachusetts Congregational church minister Jonathan Edwards helped inspire a revivalist movement known as the Great Awakening. Lloyd's List is published and passed out outside of Lloyd's Coffeehouse.

1735: John Peter Zenger, New York editor, acquitted of libel in NY, establishing press freedom. Defense attorney Andrew Hamilton's brillant defense was based on the right to say and print the truth. Missouri settled. Britain passes first copyright law to stop engravers from copying work of artists. Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus writes Systema Naturae - classifying animals into phyla groups.

1736: Regular stage service between Boston and Newport begins. British and Chickasaw Indian allies win the battle of Ackia opening northwest MS for English settlement. British Parliament passes the Witchcraft Act, ending all witch trials. Anglican preachers John and Charles Wesley arrive in Georgia, preaching outside rather than in churches. People called the style "Methodist". Daniel Fahrenheit (father of mercury thermometers) dies. Ben Franklin establishes the first fire fighting company in PA - The Union Fire Company.

1737: Antonio Stradivari dies in Cremona, Italy - made over 1,200 violins.

1738: Smallpox epidemic in So Carolina. John and Charles Wesley return to England to begin preaching "Methodist" style. Charles, Viscount Townsend, dies at the age of 63 - introduced method of using turnips to keep animals alive during the winter - major part of the agricultural revolution.

1739: Commercial disputes between Spanish and British in America became the War of Jenkins' Ear. Measles epidemic in Boston begins and continues into 1740. Three slave revolts in South Carolina - one by Cato who was hanged after killing 30 people while fighting for his freedom. Blackfoot Indians (Canada) get horses - changes the way they hunt buffalo.

1743: American Philosophical Society is founded by Benjamin Franklin and others.

1744: New York offers you a choice of 166 public (taverns) houses.

1745: New Englanders capture the French fort of Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island.

1747: Measles epidemics in CT, NY, PA & SC

1748: End of King George's War

1750: Parliament forbids new iron mills in the colonies, an act that was generally ignored. Great Philadelphia Wagon Road now reaches 60 miles to Lancaster.

1751: Parliament passes the Currency Act prohibiting New England from issuing paper money. Philadelphia erects whale oil lamps and is hiring street lamp lighters thus lighting the streets of Philadelphia.

1752: Benjamin Franklin flies a kite during a storm to prove that lightning is electricity.

1754: Britain declares war on France in the American Colonies, war begins in Europe in 1756.

1755: Samuel Johnson's Dictionary first published. US Postal Service established.

1760: Two pirates hung in Newport, RI, such an unusual spectacle that 5,000 gathered to watch.

1761: Royal Writs of Assistance allowed British to search American ships for illegal shipments. British plumber Thomas Crapper began marketing flush toilets, first invented in 1596 by British nobleman John Harington, Englishman John Harrison perfected a clock that worked at sea and put accurate time and thus longitude in a navigator's pocket. National epidemic of Influenza.

1763: Royal edict limiting western expansion and requiring settlers beyond the Appalachian Mountains to withdraw. It was met with blatant disregard from the people on the frontier.

1764: Sugar Act & Currency Act passed by Parliament. The Sugar Act used duties on molasses to raise revenue and denied jury trials to the law's violators. The Currency Act forbid the colonies to print paper money. The Act caused financial distress since few Colonial merchants had enough hard cash to pay debts to British exporters.

1765: James Watts invents the steam engine. The Sons of Liberty was founded. First American medical school opens in Philadelphia. Stamp Act and Quartering Act passed by Parliament. The Stamp Act required the purchase of revenue stamps on everything from newspapers to legal documents.

1766: Wisconsin settled. The colonies' first permanent theater, the Southwark, debuts in Philadelphia. Refusal of the New York Legislature to provide barracks and supplies required by the Quartering Act goaded Parliament into suspending the assembly, which finally capitulated. The Declaratory Act asserted Parliament's "full power and authority" over the American Colonies.

1767: Duty Act. Taxes on tea, paper, glass, paint and other colonial imports (known as the Townshend duties) were levied to maintain troops in North America and to pay British colonial officials, freeing them from dependence on colonial legislatures. The Mason-Dixon Line sets the boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has 30,000 residents.

1768: New York merchants boycott goods taxed by the Townsherd duties of 1767. A Circular Letter asserted Americans' right to representation in the assemblies and to oppose the Townsherd duties.

1769: Sir William Arkwright patents a spinning machine - an early step in the Industrial Revolution. Tennessee and California settled. Virginia House of Burgesses claimed sole power to tax the colony and denounced the policy of moving treason trials to Britain.

1770: Boston Massacre. Crowds taunted a handful of British soldiers in Boston (yelling "Fire and be Damned"). Verbal sparring escalated into a melee, during which British soldiers fired into the crowd and killed 5 people. Defended in court by John Adams, seven soldiers were acquitted and two were convicted of manslaughter. Composer William Billings publishes The New England Psalm Singer. Parliament repeals the Towwnshend duties on all items except tea. Marie Antoinette of Austria marries the French Dauphin, Louis. 10 million people starve to death in Bengal. Thomas Gainsborough paints The Blue Boy. The first public restaurant is established in Paris.

1771: North Carolina's governor defeats a revolt by debt-ridden backcounty farmers. Virginia is the last colony to end its boycott of British goods. Coining copper in London is made a felony due to the increase in forged coins. Glasgow imports 46 million pounds of tobacco from the American colonies. Scotsman John Hunter publishes the first dental study, The Natural History of Human Teeth.

1772: John Priestley and Daniel Rutherford independently discover nitrogen. Rhode Island merchants attack and burn the British customs ship the Gaspee. Committees of Correspondence started in Massachusetts proposed a committee to exchange early and authentic intelligence on British actions. Nationwide epidemic of Measles. Lord Mansfield presides over the case of James Somersett, an escaped slave, and declares that slavery is illegal on English soil. England abolishes the punishment of "pressing" (laying weights on a persons back while they are face down).

1773: First Science Museum founded by Charleston SC Library Society. Boston Tea Party - The Sons of Liberty tosses 342 cases of tea in Boston Harbor. A mass meeting in Charleston, SC coerces tea agents to resign. Boston imports 310 street lamps from London with which to light their streets. Benjamin Franklin publishes Rules By Which A Great Empire May Be Reduced to A Small One in several English newspapers. After being turned down by American publishers - Phillis Wheatley (20 year old black slave) publishes her book of poems (Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral ) in Britain.

1774: British parliament repeals the Tea Act and passes the Coercive Acts, also known as the Intolerable Acts, which closees the port of Boston and reduces the power of the Massachusetts assembly. The Quartering Act is also restored; this act requires all colonies to provide housing for British troops. First Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia with delegates from every colony except Georgia and sends "Declaration of Rights and Grievances" to king. Kentucky settled. The Sons of Liberty re-staged the Boston Tea Party when a New York merchant tried to import tea. Quebec Act enrages colonists by extending Canada's southern border to the Ohio River. English scientist Joseph Priestley discovers that plants release a gas (oxygen).

1775: American Revolution Way begins. Patrick Henry makes his "Give me Liberty or Give Me Death" speech at Richmond, VA. Paul Revere's ride and Lexington and Concord battle between Massachusetts Minutemen and British. Second Continental Congress sends "olive branch" to king while raising an army, appoints Washington commander-in-chief and seeks alliance with France. Priestley discovers hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. Sep 2-9 a Hurricane called the "Hurricane of Independence" swept from NC to Nova Scotia leaving 4,170 dead in the US and Canada. Anthony Benezet of Philadelphia started the world's first Abolitionist Society. (Benjamin Franklin became its president in 1787). Worldwide epidemic of Influenza left thousands dead. The Transylvania Company (made up of NC land speculators) hired Daniel Boone to cut a way westward (what became the famous Wilderness Road) through the Cumberland Gap into the Kentucky county. Despite huge losses, the British win at Bunker Hill. George III rejects the "Olive Branch" sent by the colonies. Mecklenburg County in NC declares its independence from Britain. Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush form the first colonial anti-slavery group - The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage.

1776: Parliament forbids all trade with the colonies and authorizes seizure of colonial shipping. Common Sense, a patriot pamphlet published by Thomas Paine swung public sentiment toward the momentous decision to declare "the free and Independent states of America". Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson was approved July 4th and signed by most delegates on Aug 4th. Arizona settled. The Continental Congress offers a land bounty to British deserters. Virginia annexes Kentucky, under constant Indian attack, at that territory's request. Fires set by the British troops to slow Washington's advance gutted one-quarter of New York City. Adam Smith published An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Ben Franklin invites the Canadians into the Union - She declines. David Hume, the first person to write a history of England, dies. The Turtle, a one-man submarine, was used for the first time in War - the Battle of New York Harbor. Edward Gibbon publishes the first volume of Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

1777: Washington, who had survived smallpox as a child, ordered that all soldiers be vaccinated for small pox, but the army medical service lacked competence and was weakened by arguments about the controversial procedure. United States Flag authorized: "Thirteen stripes alternative red and white; that the Union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new constellation". Republic of Vermont, six months after proclaiming independence from New Hampshire and New York, adopted a constitution providing for adult male suffrage and banning slavery. Green Mountain Boys of Vermont under Gen. John Stark combined with Massachusetts militia to kill or capture a thousand British dragoons in the Battle of Bennington. The Articles of Confederation endorsed by the Continental Congress in Nov went to the individual states to be ratified. The first daily French newspaper is published in Paris.

1778: Seven states sign the Articles of Confederation. Peace commission from Britain, empowered to grant independence in all but name, was rebuffed by a Continental Congress heartened by the recent alliance with France. France declares war on Britain. Siege of Boonesborough, KY by Shawnee Indians fails. Illinois County was attached to Virginia. Capt. James Cook discovers Hawaii. Franz Mesmer uses hypnotism. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, author of Social Contract (advocating direct democracy) dies. Joseph Bramah patents the ball-cock for use in toilets. Voltaire, philosopher and author, dies. John Montagu, the earl of Sandwich hungry while playing cards, asked for meat between two slices of bread, thus creating the sandwich.

1779: Spain declares war on Britain but makes no alliance with America. Britain installs Loyalist governments in Savannah and Augusta, GA. Loyalists under New York Governor William Tryon burn cities in Connecticut. 40 Indian towns were burned by Gen. John Sullivan in retaliation for the Indian killings (instigated by the British) of American farmers. The campaign devastated the Iroquois. Phi Beta Kappa founded Dec 5, 1779 at College of William and Mary. First strike on record by a union in America -The Journeymen Printers in New York City. First iron bridge in the world is completed at Coalbrookdale in Shropshire England over the river Severn. British Royal Navy ordered fruit juices for all sailors as a cure for scurvy.

1780: Ft. Nashbrough (later renamed Nashville) is built on the Cumberland River. The Forty to One Act redeems continental paper money at 1/4 face value. Benedict Arnold convicted of treason. 5,400 men surrend at Charleston in the worst American defeat in the war. Capt Banastre Tarleton commander of the "loyal legion" of green-clad American Loyalists bayoneted to death more than a 100 disarmed Continental soldiers most under a flag of surrender.

1781: Bank of North America established in Philadelphia. State Assembly of Virginia took to the hills when Tarleton's dragoons raided Charlottesville. Maryland became the 9th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation. Slaves rebel in Williamsburg, VA.

1782: Harvard Medical School opens. Congress approves the Great Seal of the United States. Americans loyal to the Crown began an exodus from the US. Some to Britain, some to the West Indies, most went to Canada. US signs preliminary peace treaty with Great Britain.

1783: End of Revolutionary War. The Continental Army disbands. Maj John Armstrong excoriated Congress for failing to meet salary and pension demands of officers (Newburgh Address). Congress quickly awarded 5 years' back pay. Regular troops who had not been paid assembled in Philadelphia. Unnerved, Congress relocated briefly to Princeton, NJ. Noah Webster published his Blue-Backed Speller. It instructed generations of schoolchildren in standardized American usage and sold some 15 million copies in Webster's lifetime.

1784: First newspaper published daily: Pennsylvania Packet and General Advertiser began in Sept of 1784. John Wesley's Deed of Declaration, the basic work of Methodism is published. Alaska settled. Benjamin Franklin invents the bifocal eyeglasses. Congress narrowly defeats Jefferson's proposal to ban slavery in new territories after 1800. Spain closes the lower Mississippi to US navigation.

1785: Bundling a custom permitting unmarried men and women to sleep fully clothed in the same bed for warmth came under fire from moral reformers intent on preserving the chastity of American Women. Land Ordinance of 1785 provided for rectangular survey of the Northwest Territory.

1786: Ordinance of Religious Freedom adopted by the Virginia Legislature made religious discrimination by the state illegal. Congress adopts a coinage system, proposed by Jefferson, based on the Spanish dollar. John Adams fails to negotiate an end to piracy against US shipping off the Barbary Coast. Proposed treaty with Spain halting US navigation on the Mississippi was rejected. Ohio Company of Associates was formed to settle New Englanders on 1.5 million acres of the Territory Northwest of the Ohio River.

1787: The Constitution of the United States is signed. Delegates to the Constitutional Convention watch as John Fitch tests the first US steamboat. First American cotton mill opens in Beverly Massachusetts. Delaware became the 1st state to join the Union (Dec 7, 1787) it was settled in 1638; Pennsylvania became the 2nd state (Dec 12, 1787) it was settled in 1682; New Jersey became the 3rd state (Dec 18, 1787) it was settled in 1660. Northwest Ordinance provided for division of the Territory Northwest of the Ohio River into 3 to 5 states. It directed the organization of territories and the admission of states throughout the nation's expansion. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay adopted collectively the pen name Publius and argued in New York newspapers for ratification of the Constitution. These articles were collected and published as The Federalist in 1788.

1788: Ohio and Iowa settled. Georgia became the 4th state to join the Union (Jan 2, 1788) settled in 1733; Connecticut became the 5th state (Jan 9, 1788) settled 1634; Massachusetts became the 6th state (Feb 6, 1788) settled in 1620; Maryland became the 7th state (Apr 28, 1788) settled in 1634; South Carolina became the 8th state (May 23, 1788) settled in 1670; New Hampshire became the 9th state (June 21, 1788) settled in 1623; Virginia became the 10th state (June 25, 1788) settled 1607; New York became the 11th state (Jul 26, 1788) settled 1614. Fire in New Orleans destroys 800 buildings. Hopes for prosperity return after a continuing plunge in commodity prices finally ends. Maryland offers to cede ten square miles of land on the Potomac River for a new national capital. Federal and Greek Revival styles, with their classical lines, came into American vogue after British publication of George Hepplewhite's Cabinet-maker and Upholsterer's Guide. Philadelphia and New York suffer from a Measles epidemic.

1789: Campaign buttons appear for the first presidential election. Christopher Colles publishes the first US road maps. George Washington elected President with all 69 votes of the Electoral College, takes oath of office in NY City. Vice President: John Adams. Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson. Secretary of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton. French Revolution begins. North Carolina became the 12th state to join the Union (Nov 21, 1789) settled in 1660. Tammany Society, a two year old club, was reorganized by tradesmen in New York City as an anti-Federalist fraternity. A century later it became notorious as a Democratic political machine. Englishman Samuel Slater comes to the colonies carrying in his head the details of a cotton spinning machine that produced cotton thread (a closely guarded secret in England to insure England's hold on the monopoly of the production of cotton thread strong enough to make cotton cloth). He later built the machine from memory in Pawtucket, RI for the wealthy Brown family and thus put the colonies into direct competition with England's cotton thread trade. And, turned the south to growing cotton.

1790: Philadelphia chosen temporary Capital of US as Congress voted to establish a new capital on the Potomac. US population counted in first US census: about 3,929,000 including 698,000 slaves. Rhode Island became the 13th state to join the Union (May 29, 1790) settled in 1636. Quakers petitioned Congress to abolish slavery. Ben Franklin's funeral draws 20,000 mourners. Process for manufacturing potash wins Samuel Hopkins the first US Patent. Capt. Robert Gray returned to Boston aboard Columbia, the first US ship to circumnavigate the globe. 75 post offices in existence.

1791: US Bill of Rights ratified. Vermont became the 14th state to join the Union (Mar 4, 1791) settled 1724. Meetings of President Washington and his four department heads to discuss foreign and domestic matters helped establish the practice of collective Cabinet meetings. Thomas Paine published Rights of Man, which defended the principles of the French Revolution.

1792: Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union (Jun 1, 1792) settled 1774. British author Mary Wollstonecraft (considered to be the first feminist) published A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. The Farmer's Almanac started by Robert Thomas. National mint established in Philadelphia. Washington and Adams reelected. New York Stock Exchange began as a written agreement among 24 brokers and merchants, who signed in on the Wall Street curbstone where they bought and sold US government stocks.

1793: More than 4,000 die from yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia almost shutting down the federal government and suspending the custom of shaking hands. Epidemic of Influenza and a "putrid fever" hits Vermont. Delaware suffers "extremely fatal" bilious disorder epidemic. A strange and unknown medical epidemic in Harrisburg and Middletown PA leave many dead . Fugitive Slave Act makes it illegal to prevent the arrest of runaway slaves.

1794: Whiskey Rebellion in Pennsylvania as farmers object to liquor taxes. US Navy formed (without ships). Powdered hair goes out of fashion for men although braids remain. Eli Whitney patents the cotton gin. A hand-cranked mechanism that drew raw cotton fibers over a metal cylinder armed with saw-toothed wheels. Whitney gained little financial reward for this invention since its simple mechanism could be copied by anyone with ordinary tools. The African Methodist Episcopal Church organizes in Philadelphia.

1795: French brewer Nicolas Appert first preserved food by sealing and heating it in airtight jars. Treaty of Greenville, signed by Mad Anthony Wayne and 12 Indian Tribes, ended Indian control of what is present-day Ohio. Defeated the previous year at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, the Indians ceded their land to the US. Farmers gained free access to the Mississippi River and a three-year right to deposit cargo at New Orleans through a treaty with Spain. The western US boundary was set at the river; the southern boundary at the 31st parallel. Congress requires 5 years of residence for citizenship.

1796: George Washington gave his "Farewell Address" after refusing to run for a 3rd term. John Adams elected President; Thomas Jefferson, vice-president. Tennessee became the 16th state to join the Union (Jun 1, 1796) settled in 1769. James Watts of Glasgow University patented a new type of steam engine that reduced fuel cost 75% thus setting off the industrial revolution. First Elephant arrived in the US. Jacob Crowinshield of Salem, Mass exhibited the animal for profit, declaring that it drank "all kinds of spiritous liquors ... drawing the corks with its trunk" Capt. Ebenezer Dorr, aboard the Otter, explores the California coastline. Amelia Summers publishes the first US cookbook. Yellow Fever epidemic hits PA again.

1797: Johnny Appleseed Chapman began planting apple seeds and his variety of Christianity (Swedenborgian) along the Ohio Valley. He died 50 years later, owning nearly 1,200 acres of orchards. French seizure of 300 US ships and demands for bribes and apologies from US envoys, made by 3 French agents publicly identified only as X, Y and Z, stirred US Francophobia and led to a 3 year undeclared naval war.

1798: Alien and Sedition Acts were passed by a Federalist Congress to suppress opposition. Several writers and newspaper editors were tried for attacking President Adams; ten were fined and jailed. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions protested the Alien and Sedition Acts as unconstitutional. Kentucky's, written by Jefferson, asserted states' rights to nullify such acts of Congress - a foretaste of southern political philosophy. Congress raises residence test from 5 years to 14 for aliens seeking citizenship. Once again PA is hit hard by a Yellow Fever epidemic.

1799: French Revolution ends. The Rosetta Stone is discovered near the Egyptian city of Rosetta. Private peace mission to Paris by Quaker George Logan leads to a law barring such efforts. Taxpayers' Revolt by Pennsylvania farmers opposed a direct federal tax on their property. Their leader, John Fries, was convicted of treason and sentenced to death, but was pardoned by President Adams. President George Washington dies from a throat infection at age 67 only 3 years after he retired from the Presidency. National Quarantine Act passed to isolate diseased animals and people.

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